Events from 1300

Flying buttresses are a striking new structural feature on the exterior of Gothic cathedrals

The Early English phase in Gothic architecture gives way to the Decorated style

The formalities of the Tea Ceremony demand equivalently exquisite wares from the Japanese potters

Boniface VIII declares a Jubilee or Holy Year, with plenary indulgences for pilgrims who make their way to Rome

Mosaic begins to yield to fresco, as the chief medium for the decoration of Christian churches

Portolan charts, showing the coastlines of the Mediterranean, Black Sea and Atlantic coast, are the start of accurate mapmaking

Tabriz under the Mongol Il-khans is the first centre of Persian miniature painting

The Italian communes employ powerful leaders, or signori, in a trend which leads away from oligarchy and towards princely rule

The bankers of northern Italy develop a method of accountancy - double-entry book-keeping - which will have lasting significance

Duns Scotus, known as the Subtle Doctor in medieval times, later provides humanists with the name Dunsman or dunce

Edward I, conqueror of Wales, bestows the cherished title 'prince of Wales' on his own heir, the future Edward II

Andrew III of Hungary dies without an heir, bringing to an end four centuries of rule by the descendants of Arpad

The estates-general of France gather for the first time, in Notre Dame, to consider the king's relationship with the pope

Dante, a member of the White faction in Florence, is sentenced to death by the Blacks - and never returns to his native city

The Knights Templars withdraw from the island of Arwad, the last foothold of the crusaders in the Middle East

Enrico degli Scrovegni employs Giotto to paint the cycle of frescoes in his chapel in Padua

Robert de Bruce, in hiding on the island of Rathlin, is supposedly given a lesson in perseverance by a spider

The English king Edward I dies campaigning near Carlisle, on an expedition north against his Scottish rival Robert the Bruce

Dante, in exile from Florence, begins work on The Divine Comedy - completing it just before his death, 14 years later

The cathedral authorities in Siena commission from Duccio the great altarpiece which becomes known as the Maestà

The Teutonic knights seize the coastal area round Gdansk, cutting off Poland's access to the sea

Clement V moves the papacy to Avignon, in a move which is expected to be temporary but which lasts for nearly seventy years

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